Current Issue Volume 8, Number 1 , January-April 2018

EDITORIAL
Sabita M Ram

Scope of Research in Rural Oral Health

[Year:2018] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:1] [Pages:61] [Pages No:iv]



A general health for all is important for the well-being of society. However, oral health has been ignored and has taken a backseat in both urban and rural health care. Though the number of dentists and dental practice in urban India has galloped at a much faster rate in the last few years, little concern has been shown to their counterparts in the rural environment. The oral health and disease observed in urban and rural population may not be similar. The rural areas may have diseases due to unavailability of treatment, ignorance, and increased use of unhealthy habits of tobacco. The health care system is not developed to impart the treatment required and very little emphasis is given to carry out research occurring because of diseases.


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Suyog K Pradhan, Jyoti B Nadgere, Sabita M Ram

A Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Layered Veneering and Heat-pressed Porcelain to Laser-sintered Cobalt–Chromium Alloy: An in vitro Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:1] [Pages:61] [Pages No:1-7]



Aim: To evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of layered veneering porcelain and heat-pressed porcelain to laser-sintered cobalt-chromium alloy.

Materials and methods: Thirty disks of laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy of dimensions 10 × 4 mm were made and divided into two groups, I and II (n = 15). Metal alloy samples were veneered with porcelain to produce shear bond test samples: group I with conventionally layered porcelain (Ivoclar Vivadent IPS Inline) and group II with pressable porcelain (Ivoclar Vivadent IPS POM). The veneering porcelain, 4 mm in thickness, was either layered or pressed to its corresponding metal alloy samples. Firing of porcelains was carried out in particular furnaces for groups I and II. Shear bond strength testing was conducted in a universal testing machine, and the failure strengths were recorded. Fracture surfaces were characterized visually, under a stereomicroscope. For normality of data, Kolmogorov- Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests were used and Levene’s test for equality of variances and t-test for equality of means were also used. Frequencies of shear bond strengths were plotted using histogram and bar diagram.

Results: For group I samples, the mean (standard deviation) shear bond strength was 45.25 MPa and for group II, it was 60.11 MPa. There was a significant difference between groups I and II. Group II had a significantly higher shear bond strength value than group I (p = 0.012). For all shear bond strength testing samples in group I, cohesive, adhesive, and mixed failures were observed, and in group II, mostly adhesive and few mixed were observed.

Conclusion: Shear bond strength of heat-pressed porcelain to laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy was higher than shear bond strength of layered veneering porcelain to laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy.

Keywords: Cobalt-chromium, Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing, Direct metal laser sintering, Porcelain fused to metal.

How to cite this article: Pradhan SK, Nadgere JB, Ram SM. A Comparative Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Layered Veneering and Heat-pressed Porcelain to Laser-sintered Cobalt- Chromium Alloy: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(1):1-7.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Jyoti B Nadgere, Prachiti M Terni, Sabita M Ram, Naisargi P Shah

A Survey on the Current Trends in the Use of Different Core Buildup Materials and Luting Agents in General Dental Practice.

[Year:2018] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:1] [Pages:61] [Pages No:8-13]



Aim: The aim of the survey was to evaluate the current trends in the use of different post and core buildup materials and luting agents.

Materials and methods: The survey questionnaire, aimed toward evaluating the current trends in the use of different post and core buildup materials and luting agents, consisted of 15 questions. This questionnaire was validated by a panel of senior prosthodontists and sent to 600 dental practitioners in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai in a printed format.

Results and conclusion: The results of the survey showed that post and core procedures are routinely performed by dental practitioners. Majority of the practitioners did not use a post for all endodontically treated teeth. A prefabricated metal post and composite core was preferred by practitioners in teeth with loss of more than two-thirds of the tooth structure. Most practitioners preferred a glass fiber post with composite core buildup under a lithium disilicate crown. A glass ionomer-based restorative core was preferred in the posterior region. Majority of the practitioners used glass ionomer cement (GIC) for luting of ceramo-metal crowns. Resin cement was the cement of choice for luting of lithium disilicate crowns. Failure of teeth restored with a post and core was rarely encountered by most practitioners and the most common cause of failure was due to fracture of the tooth.

Keywords: Core buildup materials, Luting agents, Post.

How to cite this article: Nadgere JB, Terni PM, Ram SM, Shah NP. A Survey on the Current Trends in the Use of Different Core Buildup Materials and Luting Agents in General Dental Practice. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(1):8-13.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Nimish Prakash, Ambika S Arora, Reena Arwade, Freny Karjodkar, Kaustubh Sansare

Assessment of the Accuracy of Linear Measurements on Human Mandible using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

[Year:2018] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:1] [Pages:61] [Pages No:14-19]



Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of linear measurements on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of human cadaveric mandibles and to establish its use in various diagnostics and dental treatment modalities.

Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out using four dried human mandibles that were obtained from the Department of Anatomy Topiwala National Medical College (TNMC) on which 10 different linear distances between defined anatomical points were identified and instrumented with K files (number 08) and then imaged using Kodak 9000 3DVT X-ray machine-CBCT mode. Electronic linear measurements of bone height were measured using Kodak viewing software. Physical measurements were done with digital calibrated calipers at the same location. The measurements were performed three times by three experienced observers and the mean of the measurements was taken as dimensional truth.

Results: Intraclass correlation obtained with respect to each mandible and for each method of evaluation (Vernier caliper and CBCT) by the three observers was found to be highly significant (p < 0.001) and amounted to 0.996 [95% confidence interval (CI)], making all the readings justifiable. On comparing measurements by CBCT with gold standard Vernier calipers, we found the p-value to be greater than that of 0.05, mean difference of Vernier Callipers (VC) and CBCT is -0.0283, indicating that the mean difference is not equal to zero, and thus the CBCT results are almost equal to VC.

Conclusion: The present study reveals that we are now able not only to provide more accurate diagnosis with this imaging modality, but also to guide and assess various surgical and clinical interventions.

Keywords: Cadavers, Cone beam computed tomography, Maxillofacial imaging.

How to cite this article: Prakash N, Arora AS, Arwade R, Karjodkar F, Sansare K. Assessment of the Accuracy of Linear Measurements on Human Mandible using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(1):14-19.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Smita V Rathod, Shilpa Patel, Jigna Pathak, Niharika Swain

Immunohistochemical Expression of MCM-2 for Evaluation of Proliferative Activity in the Epithelial Lining of Radicular Cyst, Dentigerous Cyst, and Odontogenic Keratocyst: A Retrospective Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:1] [Pages:61] [Pages No:20-26]



Aim: To evaluate and compare immunohistochemical expression of minichromosome maintenance protein-2 (MCM-2) for proliferative activity in the epithelial lining of radicular cyst (RC), dentigerous cyst (DC) and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC)

Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 45 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of odontogenic cysts, which were retrieved from the archives. Sections from RC, DC, and OKC were subjected to MCM-2 nuclear staining technique. For each of the specimens, intensity and extent of MCM-2 expressions were evaluated by a comprehensive scoring formula; 100 nuclei were assessed in the epithelial lining of each specimen, under 400× magnification. Scoring was done for positively stained nuclei and expressed as percentage.

Results: The mean (%) MCM-2 immunopositive nuclei in the epithelial lining were higher in OKC cases (10.93%) as compared with RC (10.40%) and DC (3.07%), and the difference was statistically significant between the OKC and DC (p = 0.046). The mean (%) MCM-2 expression in different histopathological grades of inflammation in RC showed a statistically significant difference of MCM-2 expression (%) between cases of mild (n = 4) and severe (n = 2) degrees of inflammation (p = 0.012) and also between cases of moderate (n = 9) and severe (2) degrees of inflammation (p = 0.008). The mean (%) MCM-2 expression in inflamed (n = 8) and noninflamed (n = 4) cases of OKC showed a statistically significant difference. The mean (%) MCM-2 expression in cases of DC with (n = 7) and without (n = 7) inflammation also showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.033).

Conclusion: The mean (%) MCM-2 expression was higher in OKC cases as compared with RC and DC, which shows that the epithelium of OKC has a higher proliferative capacity than RC and DC. In present samples, the MCM-2 expression in epithelial lining increased, with increasing grades of inflammation, thus supporting the carcinogenic role of inflammation.

Keywords: Dentigerous cyst, Minichromosome maintenance protein, Odontogenic keratocyst, Radicular cyst.

How to cite this article: Rathod SV, Patel S, Pathak J, Swain N. Immunohistochemical Expression of MCM-2 for Evaluation of Proliferative Activity in the Epithelial Lining of Radicular Cyst, Dentigerous Cyst, and Odontogenic Keratocyst: A Retrospective Study. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(1):20-26.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Arjumand Farooqui, Himanshu K Parekh, Sneha V Waghmare, Vineet Kini

Comparative Evaluation of Tongue Coat Inhibitory Effect of 1% Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide Mouthrinse with that of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate Mouthrinse in the Treatment of Halitosis using N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide Assay: A Randomized Crossover Study

[Year:2018] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:1] [Pages:61] [Pages No:27-32]



Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of 1% Stabilized Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) mouthrinse as compared with 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) mouthrinse on tongue coat assessed by N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide (BANA) assay in the treatment of halitosis.

Materials and methods: Twenty systemically healthy subjects with self-reported halitosis were enrolled in the study as per the inclusion criteria. The participants were assigned to use either aqueous 1% stabilized ClO2 mouthrinse (Group I) or aqueous 0.2% CHX mouthrinse (Group II). The study was conducted in two phases of 15 days duration each with an intervening washout period of 7 days. Subjects were assessed at baseline and 15 days in each phase for oral hygiene using Plaque index (PI) and Winkel tongue coating index (WTCI). Volatile sulfur compound (VSC) in exhaled breath was measured using portable sulfide monitor. On the 15th day, tongue coating samples were assessed for both Groups using chairside BANA assay.

Results: Both Groups I and II demonstrated significant reduction in PI scores at 15 days as compared with baseline. However, reduction in PI score was found to be statistically significant in favor of Group I as compared with Group II after 15 days (p-value: 0.001). Reduction in WTCI scores was statistically nonsignificant for both Groups I and II at 15 days (p-value: 0.094). Qualitative VSC scores by portable sulfide monitor on assessment of exhaled breath was statistically nonsignificant for both Groups I and II at 15 days (p-value: 0.131). The BANA scores for tongue coat samples from both Groups were comparable at 15 days with no statistical significance (p-value: 0.503).

Conclusion: The observation from present study settings would lead to infer that dental plaque inhibition, tongue coat inhibition, and VSC production are comparable for both the Groups in the treatment of physiological halitosis.

Keywords: Chlorhexidine, Chlorine dioxide, Halitosis, N-benzoyl- DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide, Tongue coat.

How to cite this article: Farooqui A, Parekh HK, Waghmare SV, Kini V. Comparative Evaluation of Tongue Coat Inhibitory Effect of 1% Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide Mouthrinse with that of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate Mouthrinse in the Treatment of Halitosis using N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide Assay: A Randomized Crossover Study. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(1):27-32.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None




Introduction: The aqueous form of ozone is a potential antiseptic and anti-inflammatory agent, shows less cytotoxicity than gaseous ozone or established antimicrobials, and thus fulfills optimal cell biological characteristics in terms of biocompatibility for oral application.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of a single subgingival irrigation with ozonated water on gingival inflammation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy.

Materials and methods: A total of 15 participants having full mouth fixed orthodontic appliances for at least past 3 months were enrolled in the study. The study was conducted for 28 days during which GCF was collected for analysis of LDH and ALP activity; plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and probing pocket depth (PPD) were recorded and scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed at baseline,14, 21, and 28 days. Subgingival irrigation with aqueous ozone was performed after SRP at baseline. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman’s ranked correlation and nonparametric methods were used for statistical analysis. For all the tests, a p-value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance.

Results: Subgingival ozone irrigation is an effective method that can be performed during monthly visits on orthodontic patients to reduce the gingival inflammation which is caused due to the plaque-retentive nature of orthodontic appliances.

Keywords: Gingival crevicular fluid, Gingivitis, Orthodontics, Ozone.

How to cite this article: Tambade NC, Padhye AM. Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Single Subgingival Irrigation with Ozonated Water on Gingival Inflammation, Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme, and Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity in GCF in the Subjects undergoing Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Therapy: A Clinical and Biochemical Study. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(1):33-38.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Mitul Shah, Rajesh Sethuraman, Paranjay Prajapati, Jayanti Patel

Rehabilitation of Completely Edentulous Patient with Gel-supported Dentures

[Year:2018] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:1] [Pages:61] [Pages No:39-44]



A completely edentulous patient reported to the Department of Prosthodontics for replacement of worn out dentures. Extensive resorption of lower ridge and fibrous anterior maxillary ridge was found. As the surgical intervention was refused by the patient, a gel-supported denture was planned. The prosthodontic science has seen a vast progress in techniques and material advances in complete denture planning. Yet there has been no solution to the age-old problem of soreness under a denture and continued ridge resorption. A complete denture must be adequately rigid to bear masticatory forces and, at the same time, exhibit flexibility and softness on the tissue surface for proper and even distribution of the masticatory forces. However, a conventional denture is rigid on all surfaces, leading to uneven distribution of load which often presents as soreness. Various methods and materials have been used to give a cushioning effect to the tissues when dentures are actually in use. A gel-supported denture is adequately rigid on the polished surface and equally resilient on the tissue surface. This technique allows continued adaptation of the denture to the mucosa in the resting and functional states.

Keywords: Completely edentulous arch, Gel-supported denture, Soft liner.

How to cite this article: Shah M, Sethuraman R, Prajapati P, Patel J. Rehabilitation of Completely Edentulous Patient with Gel-supported Dentures. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(1):39-44.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Richa Nanray

Management of Traumatic Injury in Maxillary Teeth using EndoSequence: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Case Report

[Year:2018] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:1] [Pages:61] [Pages No:45-49]



Teeth affected with necrosis, apical periodontitis, large periapical lesion, external resorption, open apex require definitive endodontic therapy in addition to excellent biocompatible tricalcium silicate cement for root repair and regeneration of the periodontium. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has shown superior prognostic results in the mentioned procedures due to its sealing ability and antibacterial properties. However, certain major drawbacks with MTA are its long setting time, further discoloration of the tooth structure, and difficulty in handling.

EndoSequence root repair material (Brasseler, USA) is a recently introduced bioceramic. Several clinical and research studies have shown comparable sealing ability of MTA and EndoSequence in apexification and surgical procedures. Presented here is the successful management of a patient whose maxillary anteriors showed destruction of the periapical tissue. Surgical procedure was performed in right central and lateral incisors along with root-end filling with EndoSequence and apexification in left central incisor with placement of an apical plug of EndoSequence. Follow-up radiographs and 12-month cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) showed formation of bony trabeculae surrounding the apical region and intact lamina dura. Based on the clinical report, it appears that Endo- Sequence is the new root repair material that is user-friendly for the clinician even in the most challenging situations.

Keywords: Apexification, Cone beam computed tomography, EndoSequence, Periapical lesion, Trauma.

How to cite this article: Nanray R. Management of Traumatic Injury in Maxillary Teeth using EndoSequence: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Case Report. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(1):45-49.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Taher A Mistry, Srivalli Natarajan, Gaurav Deshpande, Yusuf Mistry

Craniofacial Plexiform Neurofibromatosis

[Year:2018] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:1] [Pages:61] [Pages No:50-56]



Multiple neurofibromatosis (NF) or von Recklinghausen’s disease is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting the growth of neural tissues, caused due to the mutation of the gene located at 17q11.2 chromosome, known as neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) gene. The gene product neurofibromin serves as a tumor suppressor; hence, decreased production of this protein results in a myriad of clinical features, which include café au lait spots, multiple skin tumors, axillary and inguinal freckling, optic glioma, and Lisch nodules (pigmented hamartomas of the iris). Besides the functional troubles, it is an esthetically devastating disease. Like other genetic diseases, it has no definitive treatment and surgical corrections have a bleak prospect in improving cosmesis and only help in creating a lesser monster. In this article, we discuss the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and the intricacy of the surgical management of the craniofacial involvement of von Recklinghausen’s disease along with two case reports.

Keywords: Craniofacial, Neurofibromatosis, Plexiform, Surgical debridement.

How to cite this article: Mistry TA, Natarajan S, Deshpande G, Mistry Y. Craniofacial Plexiform Neurofibromatosis. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(1):50-56.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Ambika S Arora, Deepa Das, Priyanka Tidke

A Rare Case Report of Coexistence of Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma with Fibrolipoma

[Year:2018] [Month:January-April] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:1] [Pages:61] [Pages No:57-61]



Introduction: Peripheral ossifying fibroma belongs to the spectrum of reactive gingival hyperplasias. Although it is believed to occur as a gingival overgrowth in response to local irritants, the pathogenesis of this lesion is still a controversy.

Aim: This case report highlights the presence of a rare combination of coexistence of peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) and fibrolipoma.

Case report: A case of POF in a 65-year-old female has been presented with its detailed clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings along with the diagnostic challenges associated with such lesions and the management approaches for the same.

Conclusion: Establishing an early diagnosis becomes imperative to rule out the potential for malignant transformation. This case presents a rare combination of coexistence of fibrolipoma in buccal mucosa which in itself is a rare finding.

Keywords: Benign tumor, Fibrolipoma, Lipoma, Peripheral ossifying fibroma, Reactive lesion.

How to cite this article: Arora AS, Das D, Tidke P. A Rare Case Report of Coexistence of Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma with Fibrolipoma. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(1):57-61.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


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